When we are discussing work, either we, gravity, friction, or
some other source provides the work that is done in a given situation.
In this series of labs, an object will be moved by the application
of work from a source. As a result of that work, a change in its
state of energy will occur. We want to compare the results of
analysis of work and energy to determine if we have the basis
of a physical law.
Repeat the experiment, gathering specific data for position, velocity, acceleration and force.
Spreadsheets can be set up with Excel, or they can be set up within
the interface programs themselves by making new columns and having
the program do necessary calculations. For example, you could
take a quantity equal to 1/2 the mass and multiply it times velocity
squared to get a column of kinetic energy.
Use prepared visual materials to assist you in your presentation.
We will be able to project Powerpoint presentations should you
choose to partake. You will have 7 minutes for your basic report,
and an additional 2 minutes for questions.
|You will release a lab cart from near the top of an inclined track. Monitor its motion along the track and set up a spreadsheet that calculates the work done and the resulting kinetic energy.||Dynamics Track|
Sonic Motion Sensor
|You will release a rolling object (ball, cylinder or other object) from near the top of an inclined track. Monitor its motion along the track and set up a spreadsheet that calculates the work done and the resulting kinetic energy.||Rolling Object*|
Sonic Motion Sensor
C = Ball
|Pull the lab cart away from the force sensor, which is attached to the cart with a long rubber band. Release the cart and calculate the work done and the kinetic energy that develops.||Lab Cart|
|Place a mass on the end of a hanging spring. The position where it no longer moves up and down is its equilibrium point. Displace it up or down from that point. Set up a spread sheet to monitor the kinetic, gravitational potential and elastic potential energies throughout a complete cycle of motion.||Spring|
|Place a glider on an inclined air track and attach it to a light spring. With the air flowing, the position where the glider no longer goes down the track, but sits still is its equilibrium point. Displace it up or down the track from that point. Set up a spread sheet to monitor the kinetic, gravitational potential and elastic potential energies throughout a complete cycle of motion.||Spring|
For this lab, you will use a roller skate cart which was state of the art 30 years ago. It should be more interesting than the almost friction-free cart that you're used to using.
In groups C and D, you will be provided with two different objects with similar shapes. They are somewhat different, though, and your results from one should be compared with the results from the other. Some additional outside research may be needed.
Group E should obtain results from group C as a comparison for the results they get with their rolling object.
Group F should conduct the experiment using a level track, while Group G should have the track inclined so the rubber band pulls the cart up the track.
The Force Sensor needs to be calibrated. Hang a mass on a string passing over a pulley. If you use 500 grams, the force will be 4.9 newtons.
You will use a long rubber band that will be provided, and should use the two extra masses in your cart to make a combined mass of around 1500 grams.
The time for this lab to unfold is relatively short. You may need to adjust the time in the program down to see the details more clearly.
Use two to four different masses hung from the spring to establish the spring constant.
In an ideal world, the total energy in a conservative system (such as the one you have here) should remain constant. That should be your goal, and you may need to experiment in order to determine where the zero point is for UE to achieve that goal.
Please do not stretch the spring beyond its elastic limit. A gentle movement back and forth is sufficient to gather the data in this experiment.